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The demographic dividend is the economic benefit that can arise when a population has a relatively large proportion of working age people, and effectively invests in their empowerment, education and employment.

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This report documents major achievements and innovations in 2014, the initial year of Phase II of the Joint Programme, with a focus on three major outcome areas:

• Improved policy and legal environments for the elimination of female genital mutilation (FGM)

• Increased quality of related health-care, protection, legal and social services

• Increased acceptance of the elimination of the social norm upholding FGM.

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The East and Southern Africa Regional Demographic Dividend Knowledge Sharing Symposium between in Nairobi, Kenya from 24 to 26 August 2015 was convened to provide a knowledge sharing platform to enable sharing of DD study results, experiences, and approaches for galvanizing policy and programme actions for harnessing the DD in the region and enhance synergies for its realization. This is a summary report.

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This report is the outcome of The Comprehensive Sexuality Education (CSE) Evaluation Expert Meeting that in October 2014 brought together partners, practitioners, researchers and advocates from around the world to discuss the state of the art of monitoring and evaluation for CSE programmes. It summarizes the content of the presentations, which offer examples of prominent approaches to measure the gender and human rights elements of CSE throughout the stages of programme design and implementation.

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"In 2014, UNFPA published the findings of a 20-year review of countries’ progress in implementing the landmark Programme of Action of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development, ICPD. The review presented UNFPA an unprecedented opportunity to take a close look at our programmes and assess their impact on the lives of women and girls. Has UNFPA made a difference? The evidence confirms that is has. But there is still much to do to, and the ICPD Programme of Action will continue to lead the way. UNFPA has seized the opportunity to renew its commitments to the ICPD agenda and, more importantly, to the women and girls whose lives stand to be transformed."

– Dr. Babatunde Osotimehin, UNFPA Executive Director

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The East and Southern African (ESA) Region of the United Nations Population Fund, UNFPA, is host to 18 countries in which the HIV epidemic has been classified by UNAIDS as high burden, severe/hyper-endemic or concentrated endemic with geopolitical relevance.

Gains in addressing HIV can only be made and sustained if HIV is addressed within the context of UNFPA’s mandate areas. The focus of UNFPA's mandate on adolescents, young women, and women in particular, is central to our HIV interventions. Many of these fall within the classification of key populations, which have the right to comprehensive sexual and reproductive health services. The purpose of this second HIV publication of UNFPA’s East and Southern Africa Regional Office is to highlight promising practices that can become good practices with sustainable results, and be replicated in other countries.

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Linking Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights and HIV in Southern Africa

Integrating sexual and reproductive health (SRH) and HIV services can better ensure universal access to the information and services every person needs to make healthy choices. The joint UNAIDS/UNFPA project on linking sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) and HIV in seven Southern African countries, which began in 2011, was designed to try out and demonstrate how this can be done. This project is beginning to demonstrate stories of change, and it highlights lessons for implementation of SRH and HIV linkages and service integration.

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This report is a collation of stories from some of the service providers, peer educators and the people who benefit from the Catalysing Change on Family Planning in East Africa project. The report highlights the life-changing effects that the project has had for adolescents and young people.

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Realizing both the opportunity of capitalizing on the DD and the possibilities of missing out on its potential, various initiatives have in recent years been established to inform and educate decision-makers on the DD and to advocate for its integration in development plans. A growing number of actors have joined the DD agenda in the continent and are active in supporting governments, institutions and policy-makers to conduct assessments and analytical studies on the potential of countries and regions to harness the DD and identify critical policy actions that will enable them to do so. For Africa to harness a substantial DD, these initiatives have identified major policy action recommendations.

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The 2014 edition of Adding It Up expands the scope of the report and provides new estimates of the needs for and costs and benefits of sexual and reproductive health interventions in the following key areas: contraceptive services; maternal, newborn and other pregnancy-related care; selected services related to HIV prevention; and treating women for four other common STIs.

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