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Menstruation, and Menstrual Health Management (MHM), have always been an issue for women. However, they are also issues which have been considered private, and sometimes shameful. It is therefore remarkable how quickly public attention has grown since the turn of the millennium.

This review provides an overview of MHM policies and programmes in the ESA region, with a focus on education, school and community-based sexuality education, WASH, sexual and reproductive health, workplace support and humanitarian programming, as well as opening up the discussion regarding marginalized groups of women and girls such as disabled, prisoners and transgender men. It addresses barriers and enablers for scalability of MHM programmes such as knowledge, attitudes, and cultural perceptions, availability of menstrual products and supplies and sanitation facilities as well as policy.